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  • FLUTe - Combination of Methods

    ​ ​ While FLUTe’s many methods are useful when used independently of one another, when coupled together, they offer a cost effective and thorough characterization of sub surface environmental and geologic conditions including the following: ​ 1. Absence/presence and location of free product ​ 2. Distribution of dissolved phase contaminants ​ 3. Transmissivity and H ead distributions ​ 4. Groundwater Sampling Systems The Blank liner, NAPL FLUTe and FACT A common question is “where is the contaminant?” This combination uses the Blank liner covered with the color reactive NAPL detection covering (NAPL FLUTe) plus the activated carbon felt strip (FACT) for wicking the dissolved phase of a variety of contaminants. The covered liner is installed immediately after the borehole is drilled to prevent cross connection. Two weeks later, the liner is removed. Any stains on the cover are photographed with an adjacent tape measure to locate NAPL sources. The FACT carbon felt is cut from the cover, rolled, and stored in DI water for future assessment as desired for identification of the dissolved contaminants. The blank liner is immediately installed back into the borehole to seal against cross contamination. Sometimes, geophysical measurements are made in the open hole before the liner is reinstalled. Whereas the NAPL FLUTe system can be installed without the FACT, the FACT system is always installed in the NAPL FLUTe cover. The Blank liner, NAPL FLUTe, FACT and Transmissivity profile This is the same as the above sequence, but when the blank liner is reinstalled, it is done while performing the high resolution transmissivity profile of the formation. When completed, the borehole is sealed. Sometimes, geophysical measurements are made in the open borehole before the liner is reinstalled. The transmissivity profile is very helpful in detection of the active flow zones in the formation and in guiding the selection of sections of the FACT to be analyzed. The Blank liner, NAPL FLUTe, FACT, transmissivity profile, and Water FLUTe This is the same as the above measurements followed by the construction of the Water FLUTe multi-level system. The blank liner is then removed and the Water FLUTe liner is installed in the same day for water quality and head measurements. In some cases, the combinations above are reduced to a popular FLUTe Trio which includes the sealing Blank liner, the transmissivity profile for each borehole after they are all sealed (sometimes following the geophysics measurements in each hole as the blank is removed) and the Water FLUTe installation in all the boreholes. The advantages of the combinations The combination of the several methods, sometimes including various geophysical measurements, in a single fielding campaign can be very cost effective and provide a wide range of hydrologic information. The ability to consider the results from the measurements in all boreholes before selecting the monitoring intervals in each hole allows the best use of the resources without the need to make a snap judgment of the completion of each well as it is being drilled. With the transmissivity profiling results in hand, one can also select the minimum sections of the FACT activated carbon from each borehole for the relatively expensive analysis with the GCMS technique. The activated carbon felt can be stored in DI water with little concern about loss of contaminants for many days based on tests done by the Danish Technical University. The uncertainty of straddle packer seals in an open hole in fractured rock makes the dependence on those measurements problematic. This is especially true if the objective is to determine the depth of contamination in the formation. The uncertainty of the packer seal is also compounded by the time the borehole is open to cross connection during the straddle packer testing. The power point presentation “The Full Use of FLUTe Technology in Fractured Rock” describes the potential efficiencies of combinations of the flexible liner methods for a wide variety of hydrologic assessments. Combinations of FLUTe Methods SPACER

  • FlUTe-Emplyment Opportunities

    Employment Opportunities FLUTe is always accepting applications for the following areas: ​ • Fabricators of FLUTe liners at our Velarde, NM plant, halfway between Taos and Santa Fe. • Installation personnel in our Albuquerque, NM office or our Warminster, PA office. • Scientists with background in mechanical engineering, geophysics, hydrology, or physics. • Marketing and IT professionals. ​ Benefits and Requirements: ​ •FLUTe offers substantial employee benefits of health insurance, vacation, and retirement funds. •FLUTe provides training in the unique functions of flexible liner technology. No experience is expected in this exceptional technology. Capability and interest in mechanical systems is desired. •Extensive travel is common to most positions. •Good health and physical strength are important to most positions. To apply for a position, please use the "Contact Us" button below to go the Contact Us form. Select "Employment Opportunities" from the drop down, and in the message field summarize the position you are interested in and your experience and we will get back you. ​

  • PRICING | FLUTe

    Pricing The following are excel spreadsheets with FLUTe material pricing information. For more detailed pricing including installation and equipment costs, please request for a quote. FLUTe can provide rental prices Reel Stands, Green Machines, Sampling equipment and more. Please contact us for a quote. Material Price Sheets ​ - Blank Liners, NAPL Covers, and FACT - Water FLUTe with PVDF Tubing - Shallow Water FLUTe - ACT (Air Coupled Transducers) Additions For Water FLUTes and Shallow Water FLUTes - Transducers - CHS and pdCHS ​ ​ ​

  • TECHNICAL PROCEDURES | FLUTe

    Blank Liner Procedures ​ Blank liner installation procedures Whereas FLUTe personnel are most experienced in the installation of blank liners, it has become more common for our customers to install their own blank liners. This is especially convenient for installing sealing liners immediately after a borehole is completed and preferably after the borehole has been well developed, if the natural flow paths in the formation are important to the use of the borehole. Many drilling companies have now gained experience with FLUTe blank liner installations and removals. However, not everyone in each drilling company has the same amount of training and experience. It is important to assure that an experienced individual will be doing the installation or removal. Blank Liner Installation Information: Blank Liner Installation Procedure How Deeply Must a liner be Installed in a Borehole? Maximum Liner Tension and Pressure Limits FLUTe has developed a 55 minute video teaching the proper blank liner installation and removal procedures using FLUTe’s ancillary equipment. A blank liner can be installed directly from the shipping reel, but it requires special care and equipment to remove a blank liner. For a copy of the video, please contact us. If preferred, FLUTe can provide assistance with the installation and removal of blank liners. If there are any uncertainties about an installation or removal, FLUTe should be contacted for guidance. Blank liner use with other borehole measurements It is often convenient for all the boreholes to be completed and sealed with a liner before the geophysical, or other, measurements are performed. A common practice is to complete the drilling and sealing of all the boreholes and to then invite FLUTe to remove a liner for the geophysical measurements while FLUTe then removes a second liner. Then the geophysics crew moves to the second hole while FLUTe preforms the reinstallation of the first liner with a transmissivity profile measurement. FLUTe then removes the third liner, and then reinstalls the second liner, etc... In this manner, both the FLUTe transmissivity profiles and geophysical measurements are done in one mobilization with substantial cost savings. It has been found that the blank liner removal can be helpful to the better development of the borehole. Click here for a number of solutions to risky open borehole development. Another alternative is for the geophysics, and perhaps packer testing, to be done before the borehole is sealed with a liner, but in that case, the boreholes are open longer for cross connecting flow. The above procedures do not conveniently allow for packer testing. If a multi-level system is to be installed, packer testing for contaminant assessment may not be necessary and the time the borehole is open is minimized. ​ ​

  • FLUTe - Liner Mechanics

    Liner Mechanics FLUTe liners are delivered to the site on a shipping reel with the liner wound inside out (see "Figure 1"). The open end of the liner is clamped to the wellhead and the liner is then pushed inside the casing a foot or so to create a small pocket. Water is then added to the pocket to a level above the water table of the formation, creating a driving pressure on the bottom end of the liner. The driving pressure (typically 5 to 10 feet of water pressure) allows the liner to propagate down the borehole (eversion), displacing the borehole water into open flow paths and seals the liner firmly to the borehole wall (see "Animation"). ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Figure 1. Liner on Shipping Reel Figure 2. Water Addition to the liner Animation: Liner Eversion The pressure exerted by the liner on the borehole wall is very strong and seals off all fracture flows in the borehole (see "Video"). ​ The driving pressure needed to evert the liner down the borehole mainly depends on the head of the formation. For high head or artesian conditions, differential pressure can be achieved by the addition of higher density muds to the interior of the liner or by the use of stand pipes and elevated platforms during installation. ​ Video: Liner Sealing Quality Video ​

  • FLUTe - What Are FLUTe Liners?

    What are FLUTe Liners? FLUTe liners are flexible sleeves of impermeable nylon fabric that are closed on one end. When installed in a well and pressurized with air, water, or mud, the liners seal to the interior of a borehole. Liners can be made of many different strength fabrics and diameters ranging from 2" to 30"+. Liners can be installed in the overburden through sonic casing and direct push and in bedrock by eversion in open boreholes. ​ ​ Applications Seal Open Boreholes Multi-Level Groundwater Sampling Map NAPL Free Product Map Dissolved Phase NAPL Transmissivity Profiling Head Distribution Profiling Unique Applications

  • FLUTe - Contact

    Contact Us Today To Learn More About FLUTe FLUTe Headquarters and Manufacturing Facility 1091 NM-68 Alcalde, NM 87511 Contact Number: (505) 852 0128 FLUTe East Coast Field Office 835 Nina Way Warminster, PA 18974 Contact Number: (215) 394-5760 FLUTe Albuquerque Field Office 2412 Princeton Drive NE Albuquerque, NM 87107 Contact Number: (505)-883-4032

  • Water FLUTe Procedures | FLUTe

    Water FLUTe Procedures Brief Water FLUTe Installation Procedure Water FLUTe Sampling Procedure-Before May 2009 Water FLUTe Sampling Procedure-After May 2009 ​

  • FLUTe - NAPL FLUTe

    NAPL FLUTe The NAPL FLUTe system is a reactive cover for the blank FLUTe liner which addresses the problem of locating NAPL free product in the formation. NAPL FLUTes Can Be Installed in the Overburden and Bedrock Via the Following Methods ​ Eversion in Bedrock Wells: The NAPL FLUTe is everted into the borehole on the outside of a blank FLUTe liner. For a detailed PDF on the NAPL FLUTe installation description, click here . ​ Direct Push Installation (As seen in video above): The NAPL FLUTe is compression-wrapped and installed within Geoprobe rods once the terminal depth is reached. The NAPL FLUTe has a tube for water addition, and as water is added to the interior of the liner, the rods are removed in a stepwise fashion. A tether at the surface allows you to pull the liner out of the hole once the reaction time has finished. For a detailed PDF on the installation sequence, click here . ​ How Does the NAPL FLUTe Work? ​ As the liner everts down the borehole, the NAPL FLUTe is hydrophobic. It quickly wicks any NAPL contacted in the fractures or pore space into the cover. When the free product contacts the interior of the NAPL FLUTe, it quickly creates a stain on the cover and dissolved the multi-colored dye stripes. After a short period of time, the NAPL FLUTe and blank liner are removed from the well and the depth of the free product is located by measuring the stain depth with a tape measure. ​ The inverted cover can be placed next to a tape measure to allow the stains to be photographed with the indicated depth in the borehole. The cover can be rolled for storage, but the stains may fade with long exposure. The dye stains are more durable. The oil-on-paper-like stains will disappear. Some of the common stains are shown in the photos on this page. ​ NAPL FLUTe Reactions with Different Contaminants: Different contaminants react differently with the dye stripes located on the outside of the NAPL FLUTe. For a list of tested compounds, click here . Contact with NAPLs such as TCE and PCE dissolves the dye stripes and carries the dye to the interior surface of the cover. The cover material is white and the displacement of the dye to the interior surface. That stain is the indication that the cover has come in contact with a NAPL. The size and location of the stain are indicative of the amount of NAPL present and the nature of the source. ​ Some NAPL materials such as coal tar and creosote are naturally dark colored. When those materials are wicked into the covering, the dark stain appears on both the inside and outside surface of the cover. Other NAPLs such as gasoline and similarly less aggressive solvents will also displace the dye stripes to the inside of the thin cover. Other NAPLs such as coal oil do not displace the dye stripes. However, when absorbed by the cover material, those NAPLs produce a translucent appearance of the cover much like an oil stain on paper. The cover does not absorb water. ​ The cover only reacts to the pure product of the NAPL and does not provide a significant stain if exposed to the dissolved phase. However, the dissolved phase of chlorinated solvents, for long periods, will cause the dye stripes to bleed or produce a light pink cast due to the red stripes. Those stains are not as obvious as the contact with the NAPL. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Mapping the Dissolved Phase : FLUTe has a technique called FACT (FLUTe Activated Carbon Technique) which does respond to the dissolved phase of many contaminants. A common practice is to combine the FACT with the NAPL FLUTe cover to map both the NAPL and the distribution of the dissolved phase. ​ ​

  • FLUTe - A Guide To FLUTe Products

    A Guide to FLUTe Products Sealing Open Boreholes FLUTe Blank Liner The FLUTe blank liner is a fully removable solution for sealing fracture flows in open boreholes to prevent cross contamination. Mapping The NAPL Contaminants NAPL FLUTe The NAPL FLUTe is a NAPL reactive cover for the blank FLUTe liner that is deployed in open boreholes and through GeoProbe Rods. After 30 minutes, remove the liner from the borehole and measure to the stains to identify the location of free product. FACT (FLUTe Activated Carbon Technique) The FACT is a strip of activated carbon felt that is added to the NAPL FLUTe. The FACT adsorbs contaminants from fracture flows and pore space and after 2 weeks is removed from the well, cut into 6” to 3’ pieces and analyzed Characterizing Formation Flow Paths ​ ​ Transmissivity Profiling Locate flow paths and measure transmissivity with 6" to 12" resolution Reverse Head Profiling Measure the vertical head distribution (5' to 20') Multi-Level Groundwater and Vadose Sampling Systems ​ ​ ​ ​ Vadose FLUTe Shallow Water FLUTe Water FLUTe Vadose Gas Sampling System Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic Pumping System Groundwater Sampling with Gas Driven Pumping System Cased Hole Sampler Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic or Gas Driven Pumping System OTHER UNIQUE APPLICATIONS: ​ Augmentation of Horizontal Drilling Development of Boreholes Landfill Monitoring Horizontal Packer Testing and Leak Detection Towing of Logging Tools Cure-In-Place Liners Karst Installations Grouting of Casing in Karst Artesian Well Installations Traversing Lakes and Ponds ​ ​ ​

  • FLUTe - A Guide To FLUTe Products

    A Guide to FLUTe Products Sealing Open Boreholes FLUTe Blank Liner The FLUTe blank liner is a fully removable solution for sealing fracture flows in open boreholes to prevent cross contamination. Mapping The NAPL Contaminants NAPL FLUTe The NAPL FLUTe is a NAPL reactive cover for the blank FLUTe liner that is deployed in open boreholes and through GeoProbe Rods. After 30 minutes, remove the liner from the borehole and measure to the stains to identify the location of free product. FACT (FLUTe Activated Carbon Technique) The FACT is a strip of activated carbon felt that is added to the NAPL FLUTe. The FACT adsorbs contaminants from fracture flows and pore space and after 2 weeks is removed from the well, cut into 6” to 3’ pieces and analyzed Characterizing Formation Flow Paths ​ ​ Transmissivity Profiling Locate flow paths and measure transmissivity with 6" to 12" resolution Reverse Head Profiling Measure the vertical head distribution (5' to 20') Multi-Level Groundwater and Vadose Sampling Systems ​ ​ ​ ​ Vadose FLUTe Shallow Water FLUTe Water FLUTe Vadose Gas Sampling System Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic Pumping System Groundwater Sampling with Gas Driven Pumping System Cased Hole Sampler Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic or Gas Driven Pumping System OTHER UNIQUE APPLICATIONS: ​ Augmentation of Horizontal Drilling Development of Boreholes Landfill Monitoring Horizontal Packer Testing and Leak Detection Towing of Logging Tools Cure-In-Place Liners Karst Installations Grouting of Casing in Karst Artesian Well Installations Traversing Lakes and Ponds ​ ​ ​

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