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  • FLUTe - Combination of Methods

    ​ ​ While FLUTe’s many methods are useful when used independently of one another, when coupled together, they offer a cost effective and thorough characterization of sub surface environmental and geologic conditions including the following: ​ 1. Absence/presence and location of free product ​ 2. Distribution of dissolved phase contaminants ​ 3. Transmissivity and H ead distributions ​ 4. Groundwater Sampling Systems The Blank liner, NAPL FLUTe and FACT A common question is “where is the contaminant?” This combination uses the Blank liner covered with the color reactive NAPL detection covering (NAPL FLUTe) plus the activated carbon felt strip (FACT) for wicking the dissolved phase of a variety of contaminants. The covered liner is installed immediately after the borehole is drilled to prevent cross connection. Two weeks later, the liner is removed. Any stains on the cover are photographed with an adjacent tape measure to locate NAPL sources. The FACT carbon felt is cut from the cover, rolled, and stored in DI water for future assessment as desired for identification of the dissolved contaminants. The blank liner is immediately installed back into the borehole to seal against cross contamination. Sometimes, geophysical measurements are made in the open hole before the liner is reinstalled. Whereas the NAPL FLUTe system can be installed without the FACT, the FACT system is always installed in the NAPL FLUTe cover. The Blank liner, NAPL FLUTe, FACT and Transmissivity profile This is the same as the above sequence, but when the blank liner is reinstalled, it is done while performing the high resolution transmissivity profile of the formation. When completed, the borehole is sealed. Sometimes, geophysical measurements are made in the open borehole before the liner is reinstalled. The transmissivity profile is very helpful in detection of the active flow zones in the formation and in guiding the selection of sections of the FACT to be analyzed. The Blank liner, NAPL FLUTe, FACT, transmissivity profile, and Water FLUTe This is the same as the above measurements followed by the construction of the Water FLUTe multi-level system. The blank liner is then removed and the Water FLUTe liner is installed in the same day for water quality and head measurements. In some cases, the combinations above are reduced to a popular FLUTe Trio which includes the sealing Blank liner, the transmissivity profile for each borehole after they are all sealed (sometimes following the geophysics measurements in each hole as the blank is removed) and the Water FLUTe installation in all the boreholes. The advantages of the combinations The combination of the several methods, sometimes including various geophysical measurements, in a single fielding campaign can be very cost effective and provide a wide range of hydrologic information. The ability to consider the results from the measurements in all boreholes before selecting the monitoring intervals in each hole allows the best use of the resources without the need to make a snap judgment of the completion of each well as it is being drilled. With the transmissivity profiling results in hand, one can also select the minimum sections of the FACT activated carbon from each borehole for the relatively expensive analysis with the GCMS technique. The activated carbon felt can be stored in DI water with little concern about loss of contaminants for many days based on tests done by the Danish Technical University. The uncertainty of straddle packer seals in an open hole in fractured rock makes the dependence on those measurements problematic. This is especially true if the objective is to determine the depth of contamination in the formation. The uncertainty of the packer seal is also compounded by the time the borehole is open to cross connection during the straddle packer testing. The power point presentation “The Full Use of FLUTe Technology in Fractured Rock” describes the potential efficiencies of combinations of the flexible liner methods for a wide variety of hydrologic assessments. Combinations of FLUTe Methods SPACER

  • FLUTe - Blank Liner

    Sealing a Borehole with Blank Liners How FLUTe Liners Seal a Borehole ​ During the installation process (a process known as eversion), a small everted segment of the liner is placed within the well casing. Water is then added to the interior of the liner to create an annular pocket. The addition of water in the liner to a level above the head of the water in the formation created a driving pressure between the liner's internal pressure and the pressure beneath the liner. The pressure differential is maintained by the addition of water in the liner and thus, the liner continues to propagate down the borehole (Figure 1). ​ The driving pressure needed to evert the liner down the borehole mainly depends on the head of the formation. For high head or artesian conditions, differential pressure can be achieved by the addition of higher density muds to the interior of the liner. ​ As the liner everts, the liner displaces the borehole water into the formation and seals off fractures (Animation). ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Figure 1. Blank Liner Installation Animation 1. Blank liner eversion, displacing borehole water into the formation Figure 2. DNAPL Confined to an Isolated Fracture Figure 3. DNAPL spread to other fractures as a result of the newly drilled borehole acting as a flow path between otherwise unconnected fractures. Why seal a borehole with a FLUTe Liner? ​ Sealing a borehole after drilling prevents cross contamination. With traditional practice, the borehole is either left open for extended periods of time or as with packer testing, large portions of the borehole are left unsealed. During this time, contamination from one fracture can mobilize vertically within the borehole, adhere to the borehole pore space and flow into other fractures. The following diagrams show how cross connection occurs: Additional Reasons to Install Blank Liners: ​ 1. The liner seals the entire hole where it can be sealed as compared to multiple packers in boreholes. This is especially useful in karst formations. A packer must be placed in an aquitard to be fully effective. ​ 2. The flow in the formation is not perturbed by flow in the open hole. Therefore, measurements of various kinds, such as temperature distribution due to flow in the formation, are more realistic of the natural hydrologic state. ​ 3. Removal of the blank liner can enhance the borehole development as described in the paper Open Hole Well Development Problems . ​ 4. Stabilizing boreholes. The borehole is not likely to collapse on geophysical sondes which can "see" through the thin liner such as sonic tele-viewer, radiation logs, induction coupled electric logs, radar, etc. can traverse the borehole without concern about collapse of the borehole on the instrument. ​ 5. Liners are shipped on a small reel with no need of heavy equipment for the liner installation such as a drill rig or crane truck. The blank liner is easily installed by simply adding water to the interior of the liner. ​ 6. Liners are now used to tow instruments through the protected interior of the liner as the liner is being emplaced. ​ 7. Blank liners can be equipped with many special features for custom applications such as cure-in place liners, transparent liners, heaters on the tether, fiber optic sensors, insulation of various kinds as well as special fill materials like weighted mud, deionized water, sand, freezing fluids to stabilize the hole, etc. ​ 8. Liners can prevent the loss of annular sealing grouts outside a casing emplaced in karst formations. - a common problem with oil and gas casings. ​ 9. Liners can seal shallow portions of municipal wells preventing contaminants entering the well. An interior casing in place of the tether allows the pump emplacement to greater depths. A grout fill of the liner makes it a permanent seal. ​ 10. Salt water intrusion in the formation can be sensed with a deionized water fill of the liner and can be done without the hole perturbing the salt water front.

  • FLUTe - About

    About Our Company FLUTe was founded in 1996 by Carl Keller - Principal Scientist , to apply the unique attributes of inverting/everting flexible liners to underground measurements and other uses. The quality of construction, performance and cost effectiveness of our flexible liner systems are why our clients are highly satisfied with our work. ​ Carl Keller is the recipient of the 1994 R&D 100 Award for his flexible liner patent. The FLUTe designs have gained recognition with the National Ground Water Association Technology Award in 2008 . FLUTe systems have continually evolved and are now used in 12 countries by large corporations, regulatory agencies, and research institutions. FLUTe's unique methods are covered by 30 domestic patents, 13 foreign patents with others pending . ​ FLUTe's main plant and offices are in Velarde, NM with other facilities in Albuquerque, NM and Warminster, PA. FLUTe methods for high resolution underground measurements of many kinds have gained acceptance as superior, or complementary, to traditional methods. A company is only as good as it's staff and we have the best! ​ Our senior staff average over 15 years in the flexible liner business: ​ Lisa Keller Vice President Responsible for the Implementation of the original vision and goals of the company. Oversees the company operations in support of Fabrication Fielding and Office. ​ Mark Sanchez Chief Of Operations/Fabrication Oversight of administrative staff and production staff and coordination of customer orders with production staff, plus maintenance of inventory, and oversight of the Velarde fabrication and test facility. Ian Sharp Chief Of Technology/Fielding Defines the scheduling of our excellent field crews, and oversees the construction of our unique machines. ​ Daniel Schramm East Coast Field Manager Field Trainer; East Coast Point of Contact; Schedules and organizes field mobilizations for the Warminster, PA location. Steve Martinez Production Manager Oversees all liner fabrication, and setting the fabrication schedule. Assures fabrication staff have design specifications and the proper training, maintains quality assurance procedures and records. Lydia Martinez Administrator/Account Manager Administers contracting, accounting services, and human resources. FLUTe International distributers: BRAZIL - Paulo Negrão , Clean Environment Brasil AUSTRALIA - Mike Mercuri , Matrix Drilling PTY LTD SWEDEN- Patrik Nilsson, PhD DIC EurGeol, Rosmarus Enviro "Contact Us" or Call our office at 1-505-852-0128 for more information ​

  • Blank Liner Procedures | FLUTe

    Blank Liner Procedures ​ Blank liner installation procedures Whereas FLUTe personnel are most experienced in the installation of blank liners, it has become more common for our customers to install their own blank liners. This is especially convenient for installing sealing liners immediately after a borehole is completed and preferably after the borehole has been well developed, if the natural flow paths in the formation are important to the use of the borehole. Many drilling companies have now gained experience with FLUTe blank liner installations and removals. However, not everyone in each drilling company has the same amount of training and experience. It is important to assure that an experienced individual will be doing the installation or removal. Blank Liner Installation Information: Blank Liner Installation Procedure How Deeply Must a liner be Installed in a Borehole? Maximum Liner Tension and Pressure Limits FLUTe has developed a 55 minute video teaching the proper blank liner installation and removal procedures using FLUTe’s ancillary equipment. A blank liner can be installed directly from the shipping reel, but it requires special care and equipment to remove a blank liner. For a copy of the video, please contact us. If preferred, FLUTe can provide assistance with the installation and removal of blank liners. If there are any uncertainties about an installation or removal, FLUTe should be contacted for guidance. Blank liner use with other borehole measurements It is often convenient for all the boreholes to be completed and sealed with a liner before the geophysical, or other, measurements are performed. A common practice is to complete the drilling and sealing of all the boreholes and to then invite FLUTe to remove a liner for the geophysical measurements while FLUTe then removes a second liner. Then the geophysics crew moves to the second hole while FLUTe preforms the reinstallation of the first liner with a transmissivity profile measurement. FLUTe then removes the third liner, and then reinstalls the second liner, etc... In this manner, both the FLUTe transmissivity profiles and geophysical measurements are done in one mobilization with substantial cost savings. It has been found that the blank liner removal can be helpful to the better development of the borehole. Click here for a number of solutions to risky open borehole development. Another alternative is for the geophysics, and perhaps packer testing, to be done before the borehole is sealed with a liner, but in that case, the boreholes are open longer for cross connecting flow. The above procedures do not conveniently allow for packer testing. If a multi-level system is to be installed, packer testing for contaminant assessment may not be necessary and the time the borehole is open is minimized. ​ ​

  • FLUTe - A Guide To FLUTe Products

    A Guide to FLUTe Products Sealing Open Boreholes FLUTe Blank Liner The FLUTe blank liner is a fully removable solution for sealing fracture flows in open boreholes to prevent cross contamination. Mapping The NAPL Contaminants NAPL FLUTe The NAPL FLUTe is a NAPL reactive cover for the blank FLUTe liner that is deployed in open boreholes and through GeoProbe Rods. After 30 minutes, remove the liner from the borehole and measure to the stains to identify the location of free product. FACT (FLUTe Activated Carbon Technique) The FACT is a strip of activated carbon felt that is added to the NAPL FLUTe. The FACT adsorbs contaminants from fracture flows and pore space and after 2 weeks is removed from the well, cut into 6” to 3’ pieces and analyzed Characterizing Formation Flow Paths ​ ​ Transmissivity Profiling Locate flow paths and measure transmissivity with 6" to 12" resolution Reverse Head Profiling Measure the vertical head distribution (5' to 20') Multi-Level Groundwater and Vadose Sampling Systems ​ ​ ​ ​ Vadose FLUTe Shallow Water FLUTe Water FLUTe Vadose Gas Sampling System Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic Pumping System Groundwater Sampling with Gas Driven Pumping System Cased Hole Sampler Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic or Gas Driven Pumping System OTHER UNIQUE APPLICATIONS: ​ Augmentation of Horizontal Drilling Development of Boreholes Landfill Monitoring Horizontal Packer Testing and Leak Detection Towing of Logging Tools Cure-In-Place Liners Karst Installations Grouting of Casing in Karst Artesian Well Installations Traversing Lakes and Ponds ​ ​ ​

  • NAPL FLUTe Procedures | FLUTe

    NAPL FLUTe Procedures NAPL FLUTe Installation in Open Boreholes NAPL FLUTe Installation Procedure in GeoProbe Rods Sonic Core NAPL FLUTe Procedure Contaminants that React with NAPL FLUTe

  • Water FLUTe Procedures | FLUTe

    Water FLUTe Procedures Brief Water FLUTe Installation Procedure Water FLUTe Sampling Procedure-Before May 2009 Water FLUTe Sampling Procedure-After May 2009 ​

  • FLUTe - Cased Hole Sampler

    Cased Hole Sampler (CHS) The FLUTe CHS is an economical multilevel groundwater and vadose sampling system designed for use in cased 2 - 4"overburden and bedrock wells. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Sys tem Overview: The new FLUTe Cased Hole Sampler is an inexpensive multilevel groundwater sampling system designed to for groundwater sampling in cased 2-4" overburden and bedrock wells. Constructed in a different manner than our traditional multilevel systems, the CHS is lowered into a place within a PVC well, instead of being everted into an open borehole. Sampling screens are located at multiple intervals on the CHS, which corresponds with the screen depths of the PVC well. The system is easily installed by the customer in minutes and allows for development of all sampling intervals and simultaneous sampling and purging. ​ ​ Installation: The FLUTe CHS can be installed in 2-4" cased overburden and bedrock wells. The installation procedure is easy and can therefore be completed by the customer, without FLUTe on site, in under 30 minutes. For a PDF file with installation specifics in open boreholes, click here . Sampling Intervals : All samples collected from the FLUTe CHS are drawn directly from the formation, with no issues of potential for cross contamination or leakage as possible with packer based multi-level systems. The FLUTE CHS is capable of many ports per borehole depending on the hole diameter and all intervals can be sampled and purged simultaneously. ​ Head Measurements: The water table depth at each port can be measured with a FLUTe vacuum water level meter system. For continuous head measurements at each port, an air couple transducer (ACT) system can be used with a simple surface connection. The transducers are located in the surface casing for easy access for reuse, replacement or repair. Well Completion: Prior to installation of the FLUTe CHS, a traditional multi-screened PVC well should be installed by the driller. Bentonite should be used to isolate screen sections and sand used as backfill. ​ Warranty and Removability : The FLUTe CHS system is fully warrantied and removable for other use of the borehole or easy abandonment by grouting the borehole. The system can be used for artesian situations with a heavy mud fill. Whereas the system can be used for a variety of borehole depths, the Standard Water FLUTe system is better suited for boreholes more than 200 ft deep or for deeper water tables. For systems in uncased bedrock wells, check out the Water FLUTe SPACER

  • FLUTe - Vacuum Water Level Meter

    FLUTe Vacuum Water Level Meter The vacuum water level meter (VWLM) is a very simple device that allows one to measure the depth to the water table (DTW) in a slender tube that cannot accommodate an electric water level meter. The VWLM is advantageous for any system that uses peristaltic pumping (DTW is less than ~25 feet below the ground surface). ​ How does the VWLM work? The VWLM works similarly to the process of drinking a beverage through a straw. If you reduce the pressure at the top of the straw, the liquid rises into your mouth. The VWLM uses the same principal by applying a partial vacuum to the top of the sample tube. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ A vacuum pump is connected to the sample tube and a vacuum is applied. The magnitude of the vacuum applied determines how high the water level can be raised above the water table. The vacuum is increased until the water is visible in the sight glass (Figure 1). Once the water rises into the sight glass, the vacuum increase is halted by closing the valve to the vacuum source. The vacuum gauge (VG) displays the vacuum applied in units of feet of head that were required for the water to rise to the sight glass. Note, the level in the sight glass is well above the ground surface and therefore one must subtract the distance from the water level in the sight glass to the ground surface to find the DTW. To calculate the DTW, simply follow the equation below: ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Figure 1. Vacuum Water Level Meter Design. Depth to Water (DTW) = Vacuum Applied (VG) – Height of Water in the Sight Glass Above Ground Surface (H). DTW = VG (vacuum in feet of water) - H (height of water level in site glass above the ground surface).

  • FLUTe - A Guide To FLUTe Products

    A Guide to FLUTe Products Sealing Open Boreholes FLUTe Blank Liner The FLUTe blank liner is a fully removable solution for sealing fracture flows in open boreholes to prevent cross contamination. Mapping The NAPL Contaminants NAPL FLUTe The NAPL FLUTe is a NAPL reactive cover for the blank FLUTe liner that is deployed in open boreholes and through GeoProbe Rods. After 30 minutes, remove the liner from the borehole and measure to the stains to identify the location of free product. FACT (FLUTe Activated Carbon Technique) The FACT is a strip of activated carbon felt that is added to the NAPL FLUTe. The FACT adsorbs contaminants from fracture flows and pore space and after 2 weeks is removed from the well, cut into 6” to 3’ pieces and analyzed Characterizing Formation Flow Paths ​ ​ Transmissivity Profiling Locate flow paths and measure transmissivity with 6" to 12" resolution Reverse Head Profiling Measure the vertical head distribution (5' to 20') Multi-Level Groundwater and Vadose Sampling Systems ​ ​ ​ ​ Vadose FLUTe Shallow Water FLUTe Water FLUTe Vadose Gas Sampling System Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic Pumping System Groundwater Sampling with Gas Driven Pumping System Cased Hole Sampler Groundwater Sampling with Peristaltic or Gas Driven Pumping System OTHER UNIQUE APPLICATIONS: ​ Augmentation of Horizontal Drilling Development of Boreholes Landfill Monitoring Horizontal Packer Testing and Leak Detection Towing of Logging Tools Cure-In-Place Liners Karst Installations Grouting of Casing in Karst Artesian Well Installations Traversing Lakes and Ponds ​ ​ ​

  • FLUTe - About

    About Our Company FLUTe was founded in 1996 by Carl Keller - Principal Scientist , to apply the unique attributes of inverting/everting flexible liners to underground measurements and other uses. The quality of construction, performance and cost effectiveness of our flexible liner systems are why our clients are highly satisfied with our work. ​ Carl Keller is the recipient of the 1994 R&D 100 Award for his flexible liner patent. The FLUTe designs have gained recognition with the National Ground Water Association Technology Award in 2008 . FLUTe systems have continually evolved and are now used in 12 countries by large corporations, regulatory agencies, and research institutions. FLUTe's unique methods are covered by 30 domestic patents, 13 foreign patents with others pending . ​ FLUTe's main plant and offices are in Velarde, NM with other facilities in Albuquerque, NM and Warminster, PA. FLUTe methods for high resolution underground measurements of many kinds have gained acceptance as superior, or complementary, to traditional methods. A company is only as good as it's staff and we have the best! ​ Our senior staff average over 15 years in the flexible liner business: ​ Lisa Keller Vice President Responsible for the Implementation of the original vision and goals of the company. Oversees the company operations in support of Fabrication Fielding and Office. ​ Mark Sanchez Chief Of Operations/Fabrication Oversight of administrative staff and production staff and coordination of customer orders with production staff, plus maintenance of inventory, and oversight of the Velarde fabrication and test facility. Ian Sharp Chief of Technology/Fielding Defines the scheduling of our excellent field crews, and oversees the construction of our unique machines. ​ Daniel Schramm East Coast Field Manager Field Trainer; East Coast Point of Contact; Schedules and organizes field mobilizations for the Warminster, PA location. Steve Martinez Production Manager Oversees all liner fabrication, and setting the fabrication schedule. Assures fabrication staff have design specifications and the proper training, maintains quality assurance procedures and records. Lydia Martinez Administrator/Account Manager Administers contracting, accounting services, and human resources. FLUTe International distributers: BRAZIL - Paulo Negrão , Clean Environment Brasil AUSTRALIA - Mike Mercuri , Matrix Drilling PTY LTD SWEDEN- Patrik Nilsson, PhD DIC EurGeol, Rosmarus Enviro "Contact Us" or Call our office at 1-505-852-0128 for more information ​

  • FLUTe - Shallow Water FLUTe

    Shallow Water FLUTe The Shallow Water FLUTe is an economical version of the Water FLUTe for use in environments with shallow water tables (<25 FT). ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Sys tem Overview: The system consists of a continuous borehole liner, spacers defining the sampling intervals, and tubing directly to the surface from each sampling interval (see the drawing). The SWF depends on the ability to pump the water sample to the surface using a peristaltic pump, so the maximum water table depth at any sampling interval is < 25 ft. The SWF is shipped on a small plastic reel and hence the shipping and installation is similar to a blank FLUTe liner. ​ Installation: The Shallow Water FLUTe can be installed in the overburden and unstable rock formations through sonic casing and everted into open bedrock wells. ​ Sampling Intervals : All samples collected from the Shallow Water FLUTe are drawn directly from the formation, with no potential for cross contamination or leakage as possible with packer based multi-level systems. The Shallow Water FLUTe is capable of up to 10-20 ports per borehole depending on the hole diameter from 4 inches to greater and all intervals can be sampled and purged simultaneously. ​ Head Measurements: The water table depth at each port can be measured with a FLUTe vacuum water level meter system. For continuous head measurements at each port, an air couple transducer (ACT) system can be used with a simple surface connection. The transducers are located in the surface casing for easy access for reuse, replacement or repair. More information on the ACT can be found on our Ancillary Equipment page . Well Completion: There is no need for an exterior seal with grout, sand or bentonite. The liner seals the entire hole and the water is drawn directly from the formation. As such, there is no concern about the seal of granular materials in a slender annulus. ​ Warranty and Removability : The SWF system is fully warrantied and removable for other use of the borehole or easy abandonment by grouting the borehole. The system can be used for artesian situations with a heavy mud fill. Whereas the system can be used for a variety of borehole depths, the Standard Water FLUTe system is better suited for boreholes more than 200 ft deep or for deeper water tables. Additional Uses: The SWF is well suited for detection of tracer arrivals in that the purge volumes are minimal and the sample is drawn directly from the formation. Because there is not an interior tubing bundle, a transparent liner version allows one to watch for the arrival of strongly dyed injections, such as potassium permanganate, using a borehole camera. That option requires a special polyester liner instead of the standard nylon liner. A FLUTe method called a precise gradient measurement is available in order to measure vertical gradients within ~ 1mm between any two ports in the liner. Because there is no field assembly and no annular sealing materials needed, and the system is fully removable by inversion from the borehole, the overall cost of the Shallow Water FLUTe system is often the least expensive multi-level sampling and head measurement option of the multi-level monitoring systems. ​ ​ ​ SPACER

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